Aquascape Marine Aquarium

When setting up a marine aquarium one of the trickiest, most frustrating and ultimately most neglected things is when you get to the stage where you are ready to aquascape your marine aquarium.

Your goal when planning to aquascape your marine aquarium is to create a structure which allows for the best biological filtration possible, provides a natural environment for the inhabitants and is pleasing to the eye.

Let's face it all the rock which you purchase is of different shapes and size and they never seem to fit together just as you would like. Also when you do find pieces which appear to fit together to give you the design which you would like it is never stable enough.

When starting a marine aquarium reef tank or keeping a tank of marine fish one of the choices you need to make is how you will be filtering your aquarium. One of the most popular methods of primary filtration is live rock. As this is the primary method then it is essential that the marine aquarium be aquascaped to allow for the most effective biological filtration possible.

When using live rock as a marine aquarium filter one of the biggest things you need to remember is to build the structure so that it is open. Building a structure which is open in design allows for a few things. It provides the fish with necessary hiding places, allows the water to move in and around the rock so that the bacteria within the rock can filter the water effectively and also allows for any detritus build up on the rocks to be 'washed' away into the water column where it can be processed by the mechanical filtration.

Before choosing your live rock it is best to attempt to visualise the design you would like, then when you are choosing your live rock you can select pieces which will make up your planned design. For example do you hope to create a design which has lots of over hangs, pillars and crests, caves for not light loving creatures etc? If you are not sure of the design you would like why not take a look at some pictures of a natural reef, find an area which you like the look of and try to emulate it.

Picturing and then implementing a rock structure is a step which is quite often neglected. Due to this the most common rock structure seen in marine aquariums is that of a wall of rock upon which corals are placed. Unfortunately this type of structure, although easy to implement in a marine aquarium does not emulate a rock structure as it can be found in nature.

At the time when you are in a position to aquascape your marine aquarium you can either rest your base rock directly onto the floor itself, build feet out of underwater epoxy to raise the rock off the floor or build a structure to raise the rock off the floor. The latter is becoming more popular as it allows for more water volume as well as more movement in and around the rock work.

You can utilise the rock which does not have as much coralline algae on it as the base rock and use the more attractive coralline covered rock as the show rock or if you decided to you could purchase rock which is names as base rock. A good thing to check is also which the upper side is and which the lower side of the rock is. The side with the coralline on is normally the upper side and should be pointed towards the light; the lower side will have less coralline on and probably a few sponges etc and should be pointed down.

Attaching rocks together can be accomplished using various methods. You can use tie wraps to tie them together as long as there are holes in the rocks to pass the wrap through. You can also use underwater epoxy to effectively glue then together or you can simply balance them on top of each other.

Whichever method you choose it is essential to ensure that the rock structure you create is both open and balanced. You do not want to create a structure which is not balanced and the rockwork falls over and either traps a fish or even worse the rockwork falls over and cracks your aquarium. It is also recommended to leave a gap between the rocks and the sides of the aquarium. If you do not leave a gap then you will have issues later on trying to glean the glass.

Learning to aquascape your marine aquarium is not just restricted to rocks though. Aquascaping could also include corals in the definition. Corals require different amounts of lights and water movement to thrive. Your rock structure should allow for places where these corals can be placed or attached therefore you should also build your rock structure around what you hope to keep in your aquarium.

With patience and a little creativity you can create some fantastic designs. Ledges, caverns, recesses, overhangs, pillars etc can all be created as long as you have the correct rock work which can be attached together.

When it is time to aquascape your marine aquarium try to enjoy it and in no time at all you will have a structure which will be the envy of all your aquarist friends.

Peter Cunningham combined with his father have been keeping salt water aquarium's for nearly 35 years. Their website Salt Water Aquarium provides a wealth of resources for learning how to start and maintain salt water aquariums.

Article Source:

Maintaining a Healthy Aquarium Using Proper Fish Treatment Methods

There are many things to consider when it comes to maintaining a healthy fish tank. Medication for fish treatment depends on whether you have a Tropical, Coldwater or a Marine aquarium. For example, some medication affects the biological system which can kill certain bacteria required for a healthy aquarium. You must read the instruction manual carefully before you start any treatment.

You have to take into account the size of the fish tank. When treating fishes some certain type requires isolation and hence having a big fish tank is advisable. If you have a small size fish tank, it is highly recommended to buy a portable one as a backup in case you have to isolate certain fishes.

All problems in a fish tank are bacterial, parasitic and environmental in nature. The bacterial infection is characterised by white patches instead of spots and this is cured by using bacterial fish medicine. The parasitic infection can be easily identified as it is characterised by individual white spots on the fish and this can be cured by treating the water. The environmental infection is caused due to improper handling and maintenance of the aquarium. It can be easily prevented by constantly checking the water quality and maintaining fresh stock for the fishes all the time.

Cotton mouth is a type of bacterial infection and takes place due to poor water quality and improper diet. It spreads very easily and in cases causes the death of all the fishes in the tank. Symptoms of this disease are white colouring and disintegration on the fins. Treatment of this infection can be done through change of water, vacuuming the gravel, use of antibiotics, adding aquarium salt and discontinuing carbon filtration throughout the treatment.

Velvet or otherwise known as rust or gold disease is a type of parasitic infection. It is caused by a parasite that penetrates into the skin and gills of a fish and feed on the nutrients. After feeding and maturing it releases itself into the water and thereby creates an unhealthy water quality for the fishes. Symptoms such as rapid breathing, discolouration of skin, and peeling of the skin will occur. To treat this infection raise the water temperature, reduce lighting of the aquarium, use aquarium salt and discontinuing carbon filtration.

Ammonia poisoning is a type of environmental infection and occurs when too many new fishes are added to the tank. Symptoms of this disease can be detected when you notice the fishes gasping for breath on the water surface, gills will appear to bleed as a result of change in colour, fish laying at the bottom of the tank and red streaks on the body will appear. You can treat this by using chemicals that neutralises the ammonia and discontinuing feeding for a certain period of time.

If you are starting up a new fish tank using Evolution Aqua Pure Aquarium Bacteria Gel Balls as a treatment is advisable. It is a bacterial treatment which provides the required ammonia and nitrite in water to provide fishes with a clear and healthy environment. Take note that treating the water is important because poor water quality leads to all sort diseases for the marine life in the tank.

Your contributor Harvey J Hamilton is highly skilled in all things aquarium and has been advising customers for many years on the best aquarium fish treatments available. For anybody who is looking for fish disease treatments then reading the useful resources drafted by this writer will certainly help you to locate the best solutions available.

Article Source:

Write a Better Abstract

In science and engineering, it is common to write an abstract. The abstract is important because it is the link between the contents of a document and the reader. In many journals, the abstract is the only piece of a document that is freely available, meaning that a powerful abstract is what can compel potential collaborators, donors, and readers from gaining access to the article. For students, an abstract is common manner for summarizing research results and justifications in projects and dissertations. In sales and funding proposals, the abstract can be the make-or-break that gains the interest of potential donors. Because of this, how to write an abstract in important in every branch and level of science and engineering.

Internet Searching Means SEO for Abstracts

As the internet has become an increasingly important tool for research, the abstract also has value as a search tool. A powerful abstract promoted on popular scholarly sites, such as Science Direct, among others, can generate international interest in your work. It is important to keep in mind modern search engine optimization techniques in designing an abstract that will be publicly available, keeping in mind target key words and phrases

Goals of an Abstract

The abstract of a paper should speak to the content and the author's message, including relevant justifications.

What an abstract should do:

  • Summarize the content of a paper
  • Briefly state results
  • Justify why the contents of the paper is important or significant
  • Promote interest in the paper itself (i.e. SELL the paper)

What an abstract should NOT do:

  • Explain materials and methods in detail
  • Contain unnecessary information
  • Make findings sound subjective by using phrases such as 'I think...' or 'We believe that...'
  • Go into detail on results

When should I write an Abstract?

An abstract should tie a paper together and make any big points about the paper's merit. This means that the abstract should be written as the last step of the writing process, when the author has ironed out the ideas that form other sections of the paper.

How to Write an Abstract

The abstract should be drawn from the content of the paper, without repeating the paper explicitly. The way that abstract writing is sometimes taught in school is to take a single sentence from each major section of the paper and string them together to form the abstract. This, however, generally results in a poor abstract. Instead, an abstract should be written by writing a brief, original summary of each section, and concluding with an original sentence justifying the work.

An abstract should contain all elements to make it clinically relevant. In short, the abstract should state:

  • Abstract Contents
  • The nature of the problem
  • The paper's main topic (i.e. What was done in the paper?)
  • The solution or findings
  • Unique or special points about the techniques used or the findings themselves

Example Abstract

For example, the example abstract "Searching for Antibiotics in Marine Bacteria" consists of:

"The search for new antibiotics is more important than ever as drug resistance grows [identifies the problem]. In order to find new antibiotic frameworks, bacteria were collected from sediment samples from the continental shelf of the Atlantic ocean at depths of greater than 100 meters [identifies what was done in the paper]. Two new heterocyclic compounds have been isolated that show activity against resistant cell lines of the common flu virus [summarizes the solution and describes its importance to common subject-the flu virus]. The potential for new compounds from the sea to combat the flu are virtually unlimited [comment on the future potential of the project as a special "selling" point]."

This sample abstract provides an example of how to write an abstract, though it is generally advisable that the abstract be as unique as possible to the paper topic. An abstract will be evaluated on scientific merit, clinical relevance, originality, and suitability for a certain audience or journal.

For more writing tips visit us at, your source for custom writing and editing for science and engineering.

Angela Nicole Johnson is a Formulation Chemistry Expert at Angie Biotech, LLC responsible for leading the design team in developing new fragrance and soaps in the natural products division. She has worked in the natural products industry for over eight years and developed hundreds of bath and body products.

Article Source:

The Additional Costs of Maintaining a Saltwater Aquarium

Deciding between saltwater fish tanks and freshwater fish tanks may lead you to choose the low maintenance freshwater version. But if you want to grow interesting fishes and other marine animals with lush vegetation, the saltwater aquarium may be the choice for you. The only downside with this choice is the cost of maintenance. Find out the additional costs of maintaining a saltwater aquarium in this information.

One of the first requirements of having a saltwater aquarium is to have at least a 50-gallon fish tank. This is where the first additional cost is needed. The freshwater tank does not require a minimum size for the tank. The 50-gallon requirement will ensure that the environment is fit to be a healthy environment for marine animals and vegetation.

The maintenance for saltwater fish tanks is also more expensive compared to the freshwater counterpart. There is a need for high-quality pumps and filters. To keep the balance in the environment and maintain the proper salinity, you also need to invest in salt mixes and test kits. In addition, you also need to include live ornaments. In this connection, you should also purchase a protein skimmer. This will culture live corals, which is very beneficial for the water environment of the fishes. The addition of a live rock is also strongly recommended.

What is a live rock? A live rock is rubble that is part of a coral reef structure. It is normally broken off from the coral reef by natural means of natural disturbances such as tropical storms or any other calamities.

It is called live rock due to the living organisms attached to the rock. Life forms include algae, marine worms, bacteria, and small crustaceans are present in these live rocks. These provide numerous benefits to marine environment in your fish tank.

There might be an additional expense for the purchase of live rock and you may be tempted to set up a saltwater fish tank without the live rock. But this is never recommended because the live rock acts as a source of food for the small organisms. Hence, it is very important for the balance within the aquarium. It likewise acts as filter that helps get rid of the toxic substances in the water. It is a worthy investment for your first fish tank.

Therefore, choosing the saltwater aquarium involves additional costs in the right size of the tank, maintenance, additional vegetation and live rock, and other equipments. But with persistent effort and the right expertise, the success can reveal beautiful results with interesting fishes and other marine animals.

Paul De Vizard has been writing articles online for nearly 4 years now. Not only does this author specialize in home improvement, pets, fitness and weight loss, you can also check out his latest website Fish Tank Stand [] which reviews and lists Information on all types of Fish Tank Canopy [].

Article Source:

Common Causes of Cellulitis

Natural flora of our body includes some types of bacteria. These bacteria thrive inside and outside the human body without causing harm if they stay in their rightful place and maintain normal numbers. In some instances, we accidentally acquire cuts and breaks in the skin that causes unwanted skin openings. These cuts or scrapes allow some of the body's external natural flora to enter the outer layer of the skin and move inward to infect the deepest skin layer. This is what happens in cellulitis.

Cellulitis is skin disease that may appear in different parts of the body. The bacteria responsible for this skin disease are usually the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Group A Streptococcus. Both causes of cellulitis play a role in the different types of cellulitis such as facial cellulitis, breast cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, periorbital cellulitis, hand/arm cellulitis, perianal cellulitis and lower leg/foot cellulitis.

These two causes of cellulitis act differently once inside the body. The Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci rapidly spread under the skin and produces enzymes that break down cells thereby allows non-localized infection. Staphylococci infection on the other hand is more localized and often occurs upon entry through an open wound.

Other microorganisms and underlying diseases may also be one of the causes of cellulitis. These microorganisms may enter the body through scrapes, cuts, wounds, blisters, insect bites and even ulcers and penetrates the skin layers. Tattoos and surgical wounds may also be entry points of cellulitis-causing bacteria. Some infection may even cause swelling to nearby lymph nodes and eventually spread infection through the blood.

- Hemophilus influenzae type B or Hib is a gram-negative and non-motile bacterium that used to rampantly cause cellulitis and other diseases especially in children. Since a vaccine for Hib has already been developed, cases of cellulitis caused by this type of bacteria have dramatically decreased.

- Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium commonly found in soil, in marine sediments and is also a natural flora of the intestines. This bacterium causes anaerobic cellulitis. This is a localized infection that involves the skin and soft tissue and in rare cases may cause necrosis.

- Pasteurella multocida is a bacterium included in the causes of cellulitis from animal bites. This bacterium is a resident of the upper respiratory tract in cats, dogs, and livestock. It may be passed on to a human though bites, scratches or even just their saliva. The cellulitis caused by this bacterium progresses rapidly and needs immediate medical care.

- Certain diseases may also lead to complications and be one of the causes of cellulitis.

Immunocompromised people or people with weak immune systems are easy targets for cellulitis-causing bacteria. Those with chronic skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis wherein the skin constantly has fresh wounds or openings may also easily acquire cellulitis if not careful. Same can be said with those who have athlete's foot, fungal infection, diabetes and edema.

Cellulitis is commonly treated with antibiotics and may be relieved by antibiotic topical ointments. Doctor prescription and advice is needed before treatment. Severe cases of cellulitis are delat with in a hospital while mild cases may be treated at home.

Learn more about cellulitis symptoms and recommended treatment for cellulitis by visiting our website today!

Article Source: